Sunday, March 12, 2017

24th TESOL Macedonia Thrace Convention Report by Eleni Kampadaki

(this entry is a host article written for TESOL Greece Newsletter by the TESOL Greece representative Eleni Kampadaki).

This year’s TESOL Macedonia Thrace Convention attracted many teachers from Greece and abroad, and hosted distinguished speakers who set trends and presented techniques that signal a world of change.

On Saturday, Ms Marisa Constantinides in her plenary, stressed the importance of creative teaching in developing students’ creative thinking skills. She illustrated this with a variety of interactive activities that the audience really enjoyed.

In the second plenary of the day, Professor Sugata Mitra presented his projects - “the Hole in the Wall”, “the Self Organised Learning Environment”, “the Granny Cloud” and “the School in the Cloud”, all of which, point to the future of learning. He revealed to us that he has serious evidence to believe that what makes his projects really successful is the fact that “children in groups have an understanding that is greater than that of each individual’. The metaphor he used for this was very vivid: “the hive knows everything”, he said.

On Sunday, Dr Marina Mattheoudakis made us all wonder about what - if anything - has actually changed as regards the teaching of the English language in Greek state schools since its introduction in the National Curriculum. The conclusion of her very enlightening talk was that a bottom-up reconstruction of the educational system must be implemented, meaning that every single teacher has to change his/her own class. 

During the two days of the convention a lot of very inspiring concurrent talks and workshops took place. 

Danny Singh’s workshop dealt with the issue of how to learn English through the mind and the body, turning passive listening, shopping lists, and subtitled films into simple steps to improve students’ competence. Angelos Bollas conducted a very powerful workshop on how affectively engaging topics can increase students’ motivation and have a better effect on their learning. Ms Spyridoula Kokkali pleasantly surprised us and moved us by explaining all about a project called “Healthy Little Eaters” that has really changed the eating habits of her students and has sensitized a whole community in Corfu to environmental issues.

Mr Leo Selivan in his plenary talk had us pondering on error (or mistake) correction in writing. The point he really managed to make was that there are many cases in which a student’s error that at first glance might seem as a grammatical one is indeed evidence of a lack in his / her lexis, and it should thus be remedied accordingly. 

It is also worth mentioning that the members of the Board as well as the volunteers did their best throughout the conference in order to cater for all our needs and make us feel most welcome. On the whole, it was a convention worth attending, that raised our awareness to so many trends and techniques of our ever changing world. 

By Eleni Kampadaki
For TESOL Greece


Note from the Editor: [First published in the TESOL Greece Newsletter, issue 133, p23]


Sunday, March 5, 2017

ELT in Greece: What has actually changed? - Report on Dr. Marina Mattheoudakis's Plenary Talk

On the second full day of the 24th Annual TESOL Macedonia Thrace Convention, Dr. Marina Mattheoudakis delivered a highly energizing Plenary Talk to a full house in the Bissell Library, American College of Thessaloniki.   Dr. Mattheoudakis’ warm and dynamic speaking style immediately engaged her audience, and her highly informative presentation kept us all engaged throughout her talk.  

                                                                                                                                   photo by Vassiliki Mandalou

Dr. Mattheoudakis began by explaining that foreign language instruction in Greek state schools is conceptualized within a more encompassing E.U. language policy, which advocates pluralingualism through foreign language education. The E.U. initiative aims to promote lifelong learning, to strengthen creativity and to encourage entrepreneurialism in Europe through a program of high quality foreign language instruction. Despite these worthy goals, however, recent legislation in the Greek Parliament seems to undermine their long-term viability.  As a response to this dilemma, Dr. Mattheoudakis suggested the possibility of classroom-based educational change which recognizes the crucial role of teachers as agents of change in a bottom-up grassroots reform movement. 

Dr. Mattheoudakis then provided a historical overview of foreign language instruction in Greece, and the special role of English as a foreign language within this scenario. Although Greek public policy of 1832 required foreign language instruction in all public schools, it wasn’t until 1945 that EFL was adopted as part of the secondary school curriculum. Beginning in the 1960’s, several academics, such as Professors Efstathiadis and Tokatlidou in Thessaloniki, and Professor Dendrinos in Athens, lobbied for improved foreign language instruction in Greek state schools. As a result of such efforts, by the 1990’s the number of contact hours was increased in all state foreign language classrooms, and high quality classroom instruction was prioritized. 

Continuing this innovative agenda, the National Curriculum for Foreign Languages of 2011 required that all foreign languages must be taught with analogous approaches, and the number of contact hours was increased from three to four hours per week.  However, the National Curriculum was never fully implemented, and in fact, recent years have seen a reduction of contact hours in foreign language classrooms in Greece.  Dr. Mattheoudakis then summarized recent legislation in the Greek parliament from 2016-2017 which seems to undermine the ability of teachers to deliver quality foreign language instruction. She also reported that not surprisingly, the vast majority of learners do not trust the state educational system and thus seek instruction outside of the state system.

                                                                                                                      photo Vassiliki Mandalou

As a response to this disjunction, Dr. Mattheoudakis suggested a more pro-active approach which foregrounds the crucial role of classroom teachers in bringing about change. By working more closely with the parents of their students, teachers can help to counter the negative effects of recent legislation on student learning.  For example, teachers can help parents understand that a heavy emphasis on exam scores rather than innovative instruction negatively affects students’ ability to develop genuine language proficiency.  Students should be encouraged to develop fluency, rather than accuracy, and parents should support their children’s efforts to develop fluency and communicative competence in foreign languages.

Teachers in public schools can also work to upgrade their teaching in a number of ways.  For example, teachers can find ways to use social media and other technologies more regularly in their teaching.  Teachers can also make learning more relevant to students by connecting their learning objectives to students’ lives and priorities outside of the school context. By making instruction appealing to students, teachers can create more meaningful learning experiences for their students.  In this way, teachers become active agents of change, rather than passive consumers of a state-generated curriculum which foregrounds test results at the expense of active learning.

Dr. Mattheoudakis ended her talk by reminding teachers that ultimately, each one of us has the power to shape what happens in our respective classrooms.  In particular, teachers can counter the trickle-down effects of a weakened economy by introducing educational innovation to upgrade their teaching practice, wherever and whenever possible.  As Dr. Mattheoudakis reminded us in her closing statement,  “If you want changes in public education, you must be the agent of change.”  


Report by Linda Manney


Interview with Marina Mattheoudakis by Linda Manney


Trendy terms, tantalizing techniques and talented teachers in Thessaloniki - by Leo Selivan

(This is a report from the 24th TESOL Macedonia-Thrace Convention written by Leo Selivan. It is about his experience attending our Convention as a plenary speaker. The original post can be found here. We would like to than Leo Selivan for his wonderful contribution).

Earlier this month I had the pleasure to attend and the honour to present, for the first time, at the TESOL Macedonia-Thrace international convention in Thessaloniki. While the best thing about the conference - like with most ELT conferences lately - was catching up with teachers from my PLN, making new friends and connecting with professionals from all over Europe, here are highlights from some of the sessions I attended.

                                           Plenary talks are not discussed in this post

With its unusual title, Joan Macphail and Angeliki Apostolidou's workshop Trendy Terminology in the Flipping Classroom! (shouldn't it be Flipped Classroom? I thought) really caught my eye. And it lived up to the expectation. The presenters had just come back from TESOL summit On the Future of TESOL Profession - an exclusive, by invitation-only event organised by TESOL International in Athens. Apparently, the summit had been accompanied by introduction of more obscure terminology such as doing translaguaging and METP (Multilingual English teaching professional). This set the scene for the lively discussion among the participants about whether trendy terms have a facilitating or debilitating effect on teachers. We also discussed whether such things as top-down / bottom-up processes or skimming / scanning, are indeed dichotomies or complementary concepts. Set up in a true workshop style it was one of those sessions where learning came from interaction with the participants who were discussing and sharing ideas.

Concluding Day 1 was an engaging workshop by enthusiastic Magdalena Wasilewska who showed us how she exploits short films to enhance communication. Considering my own interest in using video in the classroom, I easily fall for sessions on the topic and often get disappointed in the process. This wasn't the case here. Magdalena, who has just started her blog, shared some interesting techniques, which I am definitely going to try out on my students. Some resources she introduced us to were:

www.comingsoon.net - a database of movie trailers
www.ispot.tv an ad analytics tool - you can ignore the analytics and just browse hundreds of TV commercials

And here's one of the most memorable (and powerful) videos Magdalena demo'ed in her workshop. See an accompanying lesson plan on her blog - click HERE


Day 2 highlights included Daniella De Winter's workshop on dyslexia, in which she introduced her own method called SoftRead, accompanying her fascinating presentation with short videos of dyslexic learners of all ages. Daniella's knowledge of the difficulties experienced by dyslexic readers was matched by her enthusiasm as a speaker.

More networking in the afternoon at this rather intimate but truly international conference and, finally, Lindsey Steinberg Shapiro's session on memory. Earlier that day Lindsey had confessed to me that her topic somehow felt out of place and might have even been seen as old-fashioned among a dazzling array of presentations with the word "creative" or "creativity" in the titles. However, her presentation, hinged on the notion that memory is essential to any learning, was very well received. After using a simple diagram to demonstrate how memory works: encoding -> storage -> retrieval, Lindsey focused on different types of encoding:

semantic encoding (through context)
visual encoding (through visualisation)
auditory encoding (through the use of sub-vocal rehearsal aka 'phonological loop')

Drawing inspiration from Nick Bilbrough's book Memory Activities, Lindsey demonstrated several short, manageable activities with few instructions and very little prep on the part of the teacher, such as sentence swapping, noticing the differences and text reconstruction. The main takeaway message from the workshop was the more you work the language in working memory, the more likely it is to stay in the long term memory, because the two are in constant conversation with each other.

Thank you TESOL Macedonia-Thrace for inviting me to present at the conference. I can't wait to go back in the future!

Memorable quotes
Testing is too important to be left to testers - Luke Prodromou
In order to think out of the box we need to fill the box first - Lindsey Steinberg-Shapiro

Other random bits
There was a woman among the French impressionists - Mary Cassat, as I learned in Dimitris Tzouris's session Google Arts & Culture in Education


For a report from my workshop L2 Writing: From Grammatical Mistakes to Lexical Opportunities, click HERE


For more reports and summaries, visit the TESOL Macedonia-Thrace blogsite - click HERE

                                                                                                                                 photo collage by Leo Selivan

From left to right and top to bottom: Taverna night; with Rob Howard, Danny Singh and Daniella De Winter in the hotel lobby; theatre performance by Luke Prodromou et al; Magdalena interacting with her audience; me with the conference poster; Daniella sharing her knowledge; Lindsey in action

Saturday, March 4, 2017

The Importance of Being (an) Earnest (Peer-Assessor) – Report on Galina Velichkova’s Session

Making an allusion to Oscar Wilde’s “The importance of Being Earnest”, Mrs Galina Velichkova stressed out the importance of the word “earnest” as the main point on the role of the teachers in the peer assessment sessions and what they might and should do to prepare and organize PA sessions, ensuring positive outcomes in terms of learning objectives.


                                                                                                  photo by Dimitra Christopoulou

Generally speaking, PA is hot water reinvented. Actually, it has been around for years and the first scholar to discuss its cognitive benefits and propose an application methodology was Prof. George Jardine. According to G. Jardine  “By participating in collaborative learning settings students develop interpersonal traits and skills “indispensable” at once to the cultivation of science and to the business of active life”. Later, in the US Jerome Burner with his article “The Uses of Immaturity”, cited case studies of peer – assisted learning and pointed out the tutored students exhibited “a considerable increase in scholastic performance”,  encouraging students to assume responsibility for the each other’s academic progress whereas teachers will also foster a notable increase in self – worth and group pride of the students. What is more, the Dutch scholars Jan Willem and Dominique draw the attention to the holistic approach to assessment, which is very fruitful for students who benefit from reflection and deliberation. Keith Topping, Nancy Falchikov also had a significant contribution to the study of peer assessment, according to Keith by taking up responsibilities which raise learners’ confidence and as for N. Falchikov by putting the accent on using criteria and applying standards as the key for developing the skill to give really constructive, justifiable feedback.

 Mrs Velichkova carried on by emphasizing the benefits of PA in the contemporary classroom. Trust, Responsibility, Instant abundant feedback, Benevolent atmosphere and Professional training – 360* Assessment are facts that should be taken into great consideration. By Trust among students and between students and teachers, judgements will be objective and helpful. By transferring the Responsibility for the outcome off the learning process is indeed quite significant. Furthermore, by Instant abundant feedback will be richer in opening the negotiation between teachers and students as well as an enthusiastic idealist of a teacher provides and relish the outcomes of a benevolent team atmosphere. 

Peer Assessment may cure some classroom ailments but it is not a panacea. Consequently, apart from promoting PA for meeting the needs of increasingly demanding audiences the role of the teacher is whether or not should he/she embrace the idea singleheartedly and become a peer rather than the only assessor. Moreover, in order to determine the scope and parameters of PA, there are three basic questions that should be paid attention to: Who to? What for? and How? Research has shown that students with higher level of competence have proved to produce feedback with higher level of reliability, especially in language classes. On the other hand, students at higher levels are not exactly incompetent in certain spheres compared to the average teacher, in fact they are exposed to an unprecedented flood of spoken and written messages, fighting for their attention and aiming to induce certain actions. Secondly, spoken production such as monologues, debate argument, presentations and pitches require skills that can hardly be measured using scales and bands designed to measure linguistic ability.


                                                                                                                  photo by Dimitra Christopoulou

So how can we determine the type of assessment? According to Mrs Velichkova the procedure itself is far from that of the standardized exams and it has some features of more than one type of assessment. She focused on the three basic ones which are the Formative, must be Criterion based and Diagnostic. 

Applying PA  as a way of optimizing the learning process has some benefits but there are also some risks that get involved. Reduced anxiety of the formal grading, multiple attempts (formative assessment) allowing gradual improvement benefit the whole classroom, whereas an adequate timetable is drawn from the start and strictly observed throughout and feedback is available to all students at all times and is easy to analyze can be the risks. As for the benefits for each individual student among many it gives the opportunity to witness real-life examples of both success and failure. And for those assessed are benefited from formative assessment that endures opportunities for multiple attempts. What are the benefits for the teacher? Actually, these are quite significant as it enables the teacher to use “exercise” for diagnosing learning gaps as well as problems with communication with or among students and conceive ways of solving them with view to what students need. It saves time and of course eliminates doubts concerning objectivity. 

Concluding, Mrs Galina Velichkova in her exceptional talk pointed out that Peer Assessment is a widely discussed, widely researched, a warmly recommended practice, yet, there is still the need of outlining the possible benefits of using it in the classroom as well as the risks involved. 

Report by Dimitra Christopoulou

Tuesday, February 28, 2017

Explore & Imagine: Google Arts & Culture in Education - Report on Dimitris Tzouris's Session

With an enticing title and a toolkit full of ideas for the tech-lovers among us, Dimitris Tzouris took us all on a fascinating trip around the world's most famous museums and art galleries as he showed how Google Arts & Culture can helps us explore and imagine more.

Despite claiming not to be an arts expert himself, Dimitris showed how knowledgeable he is both historically as well as artistically by informing us that Google Arts & Culture started in 2011 (Art Project) with 1.000 artworks from over 17 museums. Now, the platform features collections from over 1200 museums and archives. Once visiting the platform, we have the chance to search by artist, art movement and material. What makes it a powerful tool for education isn't simply the abundance of artwork offered, but also their high quality. Pictures of artwork are organized in online exhibitions and visitors can explore both the art pieces as well as the physical environment where these are found. 

                                                                                                                         photo by Monika Izbaner

The pictures stored range from plain resolution ones to pictures with more than 1600 gigapixels (ultra-high definition). To demonstrate what this means in practice, Dimitris shared with us two stunning close-ups of Vincent Van Gogh's "Self Portrait" and Pieter Bruegel the Elder's "The Harvesters". Google Arts & Culture doesn't stop there though. Visitors can find objects, examples of street art and information about historical events, places and figures. Information can consist of exhibits, historical videos or stories. Apart from art galleries, we can also explore historical museums and sites by embarking on one of the 2600+ virtual tours. The latest addition to the platform was more than 50 of the world's leading natural history institutions. 

How can we then explore such a treasure trove of artistic and cultural materials? The first idea Dimitris suggested was to create learning scenarios in which we virtually visit the museums with our students by taking one of the virtual field trips. Once inside the museum, students could be asked to find pieces of artwork or find their way around the place. They could also view various genres of paintings and then describe and compare them in groups. Apart from allowing the students to explore paintings and artwork in more detail, the zoom-in feature also helps them develop a real appreciation for colours. Students can also become museum curators by creating their own collection or deepen their understanding of history by researching historical events. Dimitris continued to surprise us by taking us on a tour around the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History as well as the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. What better way to enjoy the museum experience by visiting different floors and trying to find pieces of artwork!

                                                                                                                                           Photo by Efi Tzouri

Dimitris also showed that visiting the platform can help broaden our students' critical thinking skills by exploring the Reading Visually gallery. Variations of the same painting such as Van Gogh's "The Bedroom" also offer a chance for fruitful class discussions regarding which painting students prefer and why. As Dimitris noted there are also video lessons based on the artwork found in the platform like the painting "In the Loge" by Mary Cassatt which challenges our understanding of gaze. Dimitris then moved on to present ideas on inspiring historical figures like Anne Frank as well as places such as the Hiroshima Peace Memorial.

Finishing his presentation, Dimitris showed us even more ways to explore this wealth of material by sharing links to Lesson Plans and Teacher Guides and experiments connecting the world of art with science. He also shared with us a glimpse of the latest addition to the Google Cultural Institute which is 360° videos of Performing Arts and reminded us that we could use Google Open Gallery to create our own gallery of artwork.

Dimitris, thank you for showing us the way to express our imaginative, artistic side!
Here's the link to the presentation slides Dimitris used: https://tz.rs/tesolmthartsculture

Report by Maria Theologidou

Wednesday, February 22, 2017

Misapplied Linguistics - Report on Leo Selivan's Plenary Talk

(This is a blog post that Leo Selivan had written on the topic of Misapplied Linguistics for Russell Mayne's blog. The original post can be found on the following link: http://malingual.blogspot.gr/2016/02/misapplied-linguistics.html)

Nicola Prentis once described her first experience of attending IATEFL as being in ELT groupie heaven.  Last year I had a similar experience while attending for the first time the AAAL (American Association of Applied Linguistics) convention – I felt like an Applied Linguistics groupie. Where else would you get to sit in the same row with both Ellises (Nick and Rod) and with Patsy Lightbown one row behind you? All the names a diligent MA TESOL student would know from their readings were there in the flesh.

Unfortunately, my attendance of AAAL also confirmed my belief that the gap between ELT theory and practice is growing wider and becoming more difficult to bridge. For the past few years, AAAL, which started as an offshoot of TESOL, and TESOL’s own convention have been conveniently held back to back in the same location (in Toronto last year). This geographical and temporary proximity presumably gives professionals travelling from all over the world an opportunity to attend both events.

It seems that very few actually do so. Out of 10 or so attendees from my home town Tel Aviv that I ran into at AAAL – all college and university lecturers (involved in undergraduate TEFL education) – none were staying on for TESOL, which may be regarded as “too practical” and lowbrow by the academia. “Looking down on us, ‘commoners’, from the Ivory tower”, I remarked ironically to one academic acquaintance I bumped into at AAAL, a former high school teacher, to which she replied, “The climb was too steep to look back down now”.

But this is, of course, anecdotal evidence, and since this blog is dedicated to questioning accepted views and practices using solid, substantial evidence, I will now turn to such.

Case in Point No. 1:
MISLEADING TERMINOLOGY
One thing that contributes to the divide between academia and practice is the abstruse language and incomprehensible jargon used in academic writing. Have you ever seen an article in an applied linguistics journal dealing with “lexical chunks”? Probably not, because scholars opt for “formulaic language”, a term little known to EFL teachers. Grammar teaching is referred to by applied linguistics as “focus on form” with both form (how a structure is formed) and function (and how it is used) subsumed under the unhelpful term. “Teaching” is disguised as “instruction”, which always confuses my non-native speaking teacher trainees, and "classroom” is referred to as an “instructional setting”. No wonder much published academic research makes little sense to practitioners.

Take, for example, the unclear definition of incidental vocabulary learning.  I am sure, to the reader “incidental” means encountering words in context while reading or listening and not as part of a vocabulary exercise.  Yet, in second language acquisition (SLA) research literature, “incidental learning” is a different construct, often contrasted with “intentional” with the latter defined as an activity geared towards committing lexical information to memory (Hulstijn 2001). In L2 vocabulary studies, in particular, learning is considered intentional when the subjects of an experiment are warned of the upcoming test, i.e. told to go home and memorise the items. 

This effectively renders most vocabulary practice, such as gap fills, matching exercises and other activities you might do in class or find in coursebooks incidental, because they merely provide exposure but do not require the learner to commit new vocabulary to memory. The dubious incidental-intentional dichotomy has been addressed by Anthony Bruton in an article in TESOL Journal (Bruton et al, 2011), where he called on researchers to use more transparent terms. For example, “deliberate / not deliberate” or “intentional / not intentional” would be a better choice of terms to distinguish the different kinds of learning.

Case in Point No. 2:
MISINTERPRETED FINDINGS
One of the researchers I was really looking forward to meeting at AAAL was Stuart Webb, who is known for his rigorously designed studies on L2 vocabulary learning, and often getting his subjects to take a battery of 10 (!) different tests in one sitting to measure various aspects of acquisition of new words. Imagine giving your students 10 different exercises with the same words - in a row!

In one of his studies (Webb 2007), a group of learners was presented with new words in contextualised sentences and the other group the same words with their L1 equivalents or, as SLA researchers prefer to call it, “word pairs” (please refer to Section 1 for discussion on misleading terminology). The results showed that presenting new words in context is ineffective because learners can easily, and more efficiently, learn words with their L1 equivalents.

However, given the nature of the target words in the study, the finding is not surprising. After all, do you need much context to learn the word “locomotive”?  But, say, the word “train” had been chosen instead, and, more importantly, learners had been asked to use the target items (i.e. write sentences with new words), I am sure, the findings would have been quite different. The linguistic context might have come in handy then because learners would have needed to know: 

get on/off the train, catch the train, go by train etc

to be able to use the word “train” appropriately.  

When I asked Stuart Webb about his diminishing the role of context, he seemed a bit baffled at first and could not understand what study I was referring to. When it finally dawned on him, he clarified that the study in question was one in a series of papers published in various journals (as it is often the case with PhD dissertations) and, being just one piece of the puzzle, may not give the full picture.
I re-read the article and found this acknowledgement hidden in the Limitations section:

Richer contexts may show that context has a greater effect on vocabulary 
knowledge than was found in this study.

Not only does the study support the use of context, it actually claims that more or better context might be necessary to learn new words. But if taken at face value, the study can be misinterpreted as a claim that context is not important for vocabulary learning. Indeed, I have seen a conference presentation claiming just that and citing Webb’s study. This is what I would like to turn to in the next section.

Case in Point No. 3:
MISGUIDED MEDIATORS
It’s all very well blaming the academia for the theory-practice chasm but criticism can equally be directed at practitioners themselves. Many reasons can be given to explain why teachers do not consult the research literature which could inform their classroom decisions. Apart from inaccessible language discussed above, the reasons can include a lack of time or lack of incentive (see this article by Penny Ur).

But is it really the role of teachers to read research? After all, there are teacher trainers, coursebook writers, authors of teacher’s handbooks, conference, all of whom are probably in a better position to translate research into clear methodological guidelines?  In other words, those who act as mediators between SLA research and ELT pedagogy. Unfortunately, mediators do not always take on board pertinent research findings (see for example my post on teaching words in semantic sets) or, more disconcertingly, misinterpret or misapply them.

At one of the recent IATEFL conferences, a well-known presenter, in fact, one of the leading figures in the ELT world, questioned the validity of highlighting and underlining as useful learning strategies. The evidence that was cited in support of the claim comes from Dunlosky et al.’s study (2013) which, as it turns out, was conducted on native English speakers who were not even foreign language learners – they were learning content subjects, such as biology or history. 

Clearly, there is a difference between the underlining and highlighting of portions of a history textbook to be learned and marking lexical chunks which are worth remembering or grammatical structures which merit attention. If anything, SLA research considers underlining or highlighting, alongside other attention-catching techniques, as one of the ways of making linguistic input more salient. Such input enhancement has been shown to induce noticing and arguably aid acquisition of new linguistic forms. (Jourdenais et al 1995, Simard 2009)

CONCLUSION
In addition to researchers and practitioners attending and presenting at each others’ conferences, how can each party contribute to bridging the divide between academia and the classroom? I would like to see more research conducted on pedagogical issues that practitioners seek answers to and not on what is easy to research (in other words, more on “catching the trains” rather than “locomotives”). I think it is the role of ELT methodologists, teacher educators and coursebook writers to evaluate relevant research and its applicability, and translate it into pedagogical principles.

At the same time, teachers would do well to read blogs that connect practice with theory in an accessible way, such as Scott Thornbury’s A to Z of ELT, Rachael Roberts’s ELT-resourceful or this very blog you’re reading now. Thank you, Russell, for inviting me to contribute to it!

The full and slightly modified version of this article will be published in Modern English Teacher 25(3)


References

Bruton, A., Lopez, M. and Mesa, R. (2011) Incidental L2 vocabulary learning: an impracticable term? TESOL Quarterly, 45(4), 759–768

Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K.A., Marsh, E.J., Nathan, M.J., and Willingham, D.T. (2013) Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology, Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14(1), 4-58
available from http://psi.sagepub.com/content/14/1/4.full.pdf+html

Hulstijn, J.H. (2001). Intentional and incidental second language vocabulary Learning: a Reappraisal of Elaboration, Rehearsal and Automaticity. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and Second Language Instruction (pp 258-286). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Jourdenais, R., Ota, M., Stauffer, S., Boyson, B., & Doughty, C. (1995). Does textual enhancement promote noticing?: A think aloud protocol analysis. In R. Schmidt (Ed.), Attention and awareness in foreign language learning (pp 183-216). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.

Simard, D. (2009). Differential effects of textual enhancement formats on intake. System, 37, 124-35


Ur, P. (2012, October 16). How useful is TESOL research? Guardian Weekly. (Learning English). http://gu.com/p/3bvee

Webb, S. (2007). Learning word pairs and glossed sentences: The effects of a single context on vocabulary knowledge. Language Teaching Research, 11, 63-81

Photos from Leo Selivan's Plenary Talk


                                                                                                                Photo by Maria Theologidou


                                                                                                                                              Photo by Efi Tzouri


                                                                                                                               Photo by Efi Tzouri

Interview with Leo Selivan by Maria Theologidou



Writing in L2- from Grammatical Mistakes to Lexical Opportunities - Report on Leo Selivan's Session

After a very interesting plenary talk we had the honour of a workshop with Mr Leo Selivan during Tesol Macedonia Thrace 24th Annual International Conference. It was a full room and a very enlightening presentation on the thin line between grammar and vocabulary as far as errors are concerned.

Mr Selivan started his presentation by referring to the difference between Errors and Mistakes and the Truscott/ Ferris Debate about whether teachers should correct L2 student writers' errors.

                                                                                                                   photo by Emmanuel Kontovas

He went on to have a discussion with the audience about the reasons why teachers should correct learners’ errors and the reasons against doing so. Some reasons against error correction mentioned were that students ignore the correction and they are mainly interested in the mark and as a result they repeat the same mistakes. Also, students often do not pay attention to the teacher’s remarks and they do not even read them. Finally, error correction may lead to avoidance behaviour where students decide not to use certain structures that they often fail at. 

Some reasons in favour of error correction mentioned was that is that error feedback can improve students accuracy and improves the students’ writing.

Then Mr Selivan went on to ask the audience what techniques they use when they correct. Again there was a variety of answers from the most traditional ones where the mistake is underlined and corrected to the ones where explanation of the nature of the mistake is offered and students have to correct their mistake themselves based on that input.

                                                                                                                               photo by Efi Tzouri

Mr Selivan suggested different ways of responding to mistakes. He stressed that mistakes should be seen as a learning opportunity and as a chance of responding to students writing. He said that teachers should mainly look at the whole, at what the student is trying to say and whether the message gets across. He also quoted Dellar who said that “many grammatical errors are the result of lexical deficiencies”. 

He concluded his presentation by saying that being a good writer in someone’s first language does not necessarily mean that you are a good writer in L2. This is why we should brainstorm the language needed and review the language related to the topic a student is asked to write about.

Report by Emmanuel Kontovas